The electric motorization does not give rise to emissions during use is true but how is it produced and how will the electricity be produced? Each nation, with great differences, in proportions and types of plants produces electricity from:
TRADITIONAL PLANTS: electricity produced by nuclear power plants (without direct emissions but…? !!!? And in Italy we are at 0), by hydroelectric plants, the only ones without emissions (but they are and will be few). For CARBON, GAS, TURBOGAS ... HYDROCARBONS - GAS OIL plants generally derived from oil, although in a different way, they are resources that we know are decreasing, and whose use, even with filtration systems, gives rise to inevitable emissions that are all evidence of all.
RENEWABLE ENERGY PLANTS: wind, photovoltaic, solar thermodynamic. Leaving aside considerations on the balance of emissions that the production of photovoltaic panels has caused, (on which we would still have to discuss), for each of these systems for which it took several decades to reach current production quotas of around 20-30 % of the total, with objective limits the plants cannot be installed anywhere and therefore realizable and, a desired growth, however, will take decades.
Given that each nation, for where it is located, for natural resources available, for policies and energy choices implemented or not in the past decades, has its own characteristics. It is good to remember for example that with thousands of wind turbines installed in the open sea, even for a few days in the Netherlands, there was production surlpus, with negative payment (-100 euros x MW) of the energy fed into the grid. In Germany, 61% of production was achieved for one day, always with wind turbines ... nations well disposed and equipped with plants but always ready to use nuclear power plants, always and in any case in operation.
NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS that for decades, Italy in large part, by purchasing the energy thus produced, has contributed to paying for the costs of the plant.
Despite all the related problems, it is desirable that the "free" and clean basic solar energy should develop and expand with large, huge financial investments, but taking into account the location if wind (OFFSHORE AT SEA) and photovoltaic of various types actually on marginal land or on sheds which, oddly enough, even if incentivized by highly remunerative tariffs, have not joined the various energy accounts which, however, "weigh" on the pockets of all citizens.
Returning to a situation that for 20-30 years will see us obligatorily in the current situation (or with micro variations) reaffirming each nation has its different realities ... in general an electric car does not give rise directly to emissions but:
ELECTRICITY WAS PRODUCED WITH APPARATUS, PLANTS, E-OR MOTORS FOR WHICH ... EMISSIONS AND POLLUTION ARE THERE, AND THERE WILL BE LIKE !!! . THE PROBLEM IS ONLY MOVED BY OTHER PARTIES.
Electric mobility, for some situations, is definitely a solution it has, and will have its (small) space in the cities but, unless improbable free-energy inventions (the known laws of physics, for now do not admit miracles) at least for the next 30-40 years, it cannot have such a diffusion as to be an alternative to current systems and therefore reduce the problems of pollution and the exploitation of natural resources that are running out.
new high conductivity and low loss electrical transmission networks:
new thousands of large wind farms, photovoltaic systems of various types;
new high capacity batteries, made with available raw materials, of at least acceptable duration;
new plants in 2050 in Italy-Europe, (in England perhaps in 2030?! in China in five years?!) with the experimental proof of a nuclear fusion nuclear plant which, hoping to give positive indications, after another 10-15 years, will be able to start the construction of the first ECOnuclear power plants.
We hope for future solutions, but in the meantime it would be appropriate to try to solve the existing problems.
REFLECTIONS AND SIMPLE ANSWERS QUESTIONS ON ELECTRIC MOBILITY:
YIELD: if viewed as an overall, an electric car has a low efficiency (from 19 to 36%) since the energy produced at the origin, transformed, transported and actually used, is largely lost on the street;
POLLUTION: the unresolved problem is only moved from the city ... to ... central, but the air is everywhere!;
ELECTRICITY: What would happen if the demand for electricity increased (significantly)?
There is not much electricity surplus so there would be a need for other (many) nuclear or traditional power plants ... and how long will it take to build them ??. and then there would be the problem of electricity grids, which would have to bear quite another load ... of course, networks can be redone and doubled ....!;
BATTERIES: unless improbable inventions (never lose hope in blueberry batteries or lemon juice?!) Batteries, which are the heart of the car, need rare materials so they are not available in quantity (it is reasonable to think of problems that are glimpsed of lithium availability);
POLLUTION BATTERIES: the primary pollution problems for production and disposal are evident ... maybe we won't have it at home ... but it's a big problem;
BATTERIES COSTS: current and future (assuming that the raw material is available) will be subject to a variable which, a greater demand will inevitably increase;
RECHARGING TIMES: in addition to the creation of an expensive network of distributors, whose realization times will inevitably be long, the solution of the super-recharges stress the batteries by halving their duration ... (costs !!!!);
RECHARGING COLUMNS: to a distributed network of columns, certainly located in the current service stations, it will have to encounter a problem of domestic installation (in the villa obviously no problem) but in the case of common condominium areas it is very difficult to find agreements on costs, spaces to be assigned, priority of use… !!!,
AUTONOMY: for now, it is known that autonomy is relative, 50-100-150 km so either it is a city car and it is fine, or it is a supercar (300 km), however, intended for a few.
SUMMER - WINTER: in the winter and summer months, especially in the cities there will be a significant reduction in autonomy as energy will be spent on heating or cooling ... should we at least take this into account ... and not pretend anything?!
COSTS: high direct and indirect which, with a series of limitations, make it destined for a few who can afford two – three cars in the garage;
ELECTROMAGNETISM: surely a strong increase in energy transported by the networks from one side to the other would have some influence ... There is talk of existing problems with the micro-emission of energy from a mobile phone ... let alone with a strongly increased enormous "circulation" of energy electricity. Electrosmog exists and is well known!
THESE ARE PRACTICAL AND UNMISTAKABLE CONSIDERATIONS:
For Italy but basically for all the countries where you can imagine people who have to move or tourists from Northern Europe who, to reach the places of Southern Italy, take 4-5 days (minimum) to go and as many to return ... a trip or a nice vacation spent to recharge your batteries.
The time horizon of clean and widespread electricity production is very, very far away, so without concentrating on analyzes and projections with decimals, it is inevitable that at least for the next 30 years, electric motorization, even at best, will spread limited, to a maximum of 10% (with 1000 upstream problems to solve) ... and maybe 20% (with 1000x1000 obstacles).
The electric mobility is limited, reserved for a few and mainly for use in cities.
THE ENDOTHERMIC MOTORIZATION WILL BE FOR VARIOUS DECADES STILL PRESENT BUT
WITH IANUSMOTOR A CONCRETE, PASSABLE SOLUTION THAT ALLOWS GREAT RESULTS